January 12, 2012
Latest (greatest?) working amicus draft
After having read the Miller and Jackson merits briefs, I did not find too many places where I thought tweaks of our working draft was needed. Nevertheless, I have now created a revised draft with all the latest suggested additions appearing, and that can be downloaded below. I am out of pocket most of today, but late tonight and tomorrow AM I can keep working on revisions if/when folks send me ideas/suggestions for more to add.
January 11, 2012
Merits brief for Jackson and Miller...
finally arrived in my in-box this morning. Here they are:
UPDATE: The Jackson brief appears to have the most "action" of these two, though both are worth a close read as we think about how we might further refine our amicus. I hope tonight to be able to work in some cites/ideas and post a new draft by 10am on Thursday. Then, perhaps, any/all who might like to meet to discuss final plan can come by my office Friday afternoon.
January 03, 2012
Outline/draft of SCOTUS-focused amicus draft for Jackson and Miller
My efforts at making a mega-draft by stitching together pieces of the submitted amicus drafts created something of a Frankenstein monster: by seeking to preserve different parts of different texts, I produced an ugly creature that seemed unlikely to be able to do much good. Consequently, I turned to developing a detailed outline/draft that was "inspired by" the class efforts rather than working too hard trying to preserve language used in submitted drafts.
I am now posting below the outline/draft that I produced for collective discussion and reflection. This outline/draft is now only a little over 3000 words, so we could (and likely should) add a lot more stuff. In addition, this outline/draft is for now focused only on SCOTUS Eighth Amendment doctrines/cases: materials concerning brain science, international law and state cases have not (yet) been incorporated, but they all might readily find (various) places in this outline/draft.
Starting later today, I should be around most weekday afternoon this week and next. I would be eager to work with any and all students (1) interested in moving forward with the outline/draft I have posted here OR (2) interested in revising their initial draft to produce their own distinctive amicus brief for potential filing. But because the briefs need to be close to finalized over the next 8-10 days in order to enable actual filing in the Supreme Court by January 17, I need to hear from folks ASAP about any serious interest in moving ahead on any of these SCOTUS fronts.
December 30, 2011
Update on amicus draft (and draft text of the summary of argument)
I am making slow and steady progress on our collective amicus efforts (more slow than steady, but still progress is being made). I hope that no later than Tuesday to be able to post a full working draft of the document I am putting together. For now, I can start with this (too?) brief passage that is now serving as the "summary of argument" section:
Interpreting the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition on cruel and unusual punishments, this Court has repeatedly stressed that juveniles, especially young juveniles, are a special and unique class of criminal offenders with a distinct level of maturity, mental capacity, and vulnerability to negative influences. In addition, this Court’s Eighth Amendment jurisprudence has repeatedly recognized that not all homicide offenses are constitutionally equivalent; because murders can and will differ in their severity, a constitutional scheme of punishment must sometimes differentiate between and among murder offenses of differing severity. And, last but not least, this Court’s Eighth Amendment jurisprudence has identified constitutional problems with certain aspects of certain mandatory sentencing schemes. Collectively, these established principles of this Court’s Eighth Amendment jurisprudence connote that any and all statutory schemes which mandate that a juvenile offender convicted of a certain class of homicide must be sentenced to life without the possibility of parole, without any consideration of the offender’s age or any other potential mitigating offense circumstances, violate the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition on cruel and unusual punishments.
December 27, 2011
Student guest-post asks "Shaming as a punishment… is society too soft to re-embrace it?"
Here is the final "top-flight" guest-post material I received before the holidays. Though I will not be posting any more guest-posts for extra credit, students can keep earning class participation credit by commenting on this and other posts until the start of classes in January:
We no longer recognize just the first place winner, but also the second, the third, the fourth…well you get the idea. We have gone soft and part of that softness means we no longer like to shame people for their mistakes.
Daniel Mireles and his wife, Eloise Mireles, stole $250,000 from the Harris County Crime Victim’s fund. They were sentenced to each spend six months in jail—one month a year for six years, pay restitution and 400 hours of community service.
But that was not all. Judge Fine also decided as part of the sentence that they must both wear signs for five hours every weekend, him on Saturday and her on Sunday, near the Galleria mall in Houston. The sign says: “I am a thief. I stole $250,000 from the Harris County crime fund. Daniel Mireles” -– here is a link to video
But wait…Judge Fine was still not done with them. They must also post signs outside their residence stating “The occupants of this residence are convicted thieve. They stole $250,000 from the Harris County Crime Victim’s fund. Signed, Judge Kevin Fine.”
The prosecutor said he will conduct random drive-bys in order to ensure compliance. More story here.
I for one say good job Judge Fine. I think it is high time that public shaming become a more common form of sentencing alternative. Obviously this will not work in all cases, but with first time offenders and people who are members of the community it can be more effective than a few weekends in jail, a fine or community service.
Just a couple of the obvious benefits in my opinion:
1) Help reduce prison overcrowding and save money
2) Effectively informs the public about crimes and punishments—general deterrence
3) Creates a greater long-term impact on the offender then a fine or community service—specific deterrence
Is society capable of toughening back up and embrace public shaming or is it for naught in today’s world of no one should be ridiculed in public—no matter how just the cause.
Can public shaming be transferred to the online community where an offender must post a status on Facebook weekly about his crime? Would this be more effective for juvenile and young adult offenders?
Ohio requires in certain circumstances special yellow colored license plates for drivers to display who have been convicted of DUI. Is this OK because it is less personal and likely not even noticed by others, whereas the shaming in Texas might be less tolerable because it is in the public’s face?
December 26, 2011
Update on my latest thinking on juve LWOP amicus project
I continue to enjoy and learn from reading and re-reading the seven juve LWOP amicus brief efforts sent my way. And the more I think about what might be most useful to say to the Court, the more I am finding myself drawn to the idea that the mandatory nature of the LWOP sentences in Jackson and Miller are what make them especially constitutionally problematic given both the young age of the defendants and the (many?) other mitigating factors involved in the murderers for which they were convicted.
A number of the draft briefs (though not all) focus in whole or in part on assailing the mandatory nature of the LWOP sentences in Jackson and Miller. And even the drafts that do not have this particular focus still have at least a few passages that could be incorporated into a brief with that focus. Consequently, I am thinking/planning in the next few days to take a stab at assembling sections/passages from all the drafts I now have in hand to make a "mega-draft" with the focus on the mandatory nature of the LWOP sentences.
This plan should not preclude (or even slow down) those folks who have not yet completed a full draft brief from getting me a full draft, and it also should not preclude (or even slow down) those folks with a full draft from coming to talk with me about how to refine their full draft for possible SCOTUS filing. But this plan should allow those of you eager now to work collectively on something of a "class" brief to know that, within the next few days, you can review a "mega-draft" that may become the focus of our collective briefing activities over the next few weeks if there is continued student interest in completing and filing a "top-flight" amicus brief.
Student guest-post discusses "Wide Receiver Busts (Non-Draft Edition)"
A couple more students got me some more "top-flight" guest-post material in time to get a little credit for the effort. I will post the entries periodically, and start with this sports-related sentencing post for all those who have (like me) already spent a little too much time watching football since classes ended:
It’s no great surprise to learn that an athlete is in legal trouble, but the recent investigations of (now former) Bears receiver Sam Hurd and Bengals receiver Jerome Simpson break the mold of DUI’s and t-shirt thefts. Simpson and Hurd were both investigated for drug distribution crimes that carry major federal sentencing consequences, yet Simpson is still reeling in passes for Cincinnati’s playoff drive while Hurd was quickly waived by Chicago.
Hurd wasn’t just waived because he isn’t as good a player -– 8 catches for 109 yards to Simpson’s 40 catches for 629 yards and 3 TD’s –- his situation is far more dire. Both cases are federal and implicate the sentencing guidelines. Simpson received a shipment of 2.5 pounds of Northern California marijuana while Hurd told an undercover federal agent that he wanted to buy between 5 and 10 kilograms of cocaine and 1,000 pounds of marijuana per week.
Hurd has been charged with conspiracy to distribute 500 or more grams of cocaine, and his case has been transferred to Texas. Under the federal guidelines § 2D1.1(c), that amount carries a base offense level of 26. This is raised to 38, however, for a conspiracy of a continuing criminal enterprise under § 2D1.5 and a mandatory minimum of 20 years under 21 U.S.C. § 848. Hurd could face life imprisonment under the same statute if his gross receipts over 12 months were over $10 million and he was a principal administrator. Given that Hurd had offered to pay around $2.8 million a month for drugs, it seems likely he would meet these thresholds. It is an enormous jump under the statute from the base level 38 which would result in a sentence of 235-293 months (20-25 years) without any criminal history adjustments.
By contrast Simpson’s marijuana package would carry a base offense level of 10, and 6-12 months with no criminal history, though he may be subject to mandatory minimums if he is found to be part of an ongoing conspiracy and other packages were found in his home could lead to a higher base level. California federal prosecutors have taken over his case, and he is yet to be charged. These facts indicate that Simpson may be cooperating to reduce his penalties and to help investigators go after drug suppliers in Northern California’s “Emerald Triangle.”
Given the penalties faced by Hurd, he is incentivized to follow Simpson’s lead (if he is in fact cooperating). Though his lawyer has indicated that a guilty plea is not immediately forthcoming, the mandatory minimums provide a huge reason for him to identify bigger fish for the federal prosecutors to fry.
December 21, 2011
Student guest-post asks intriguing questions about HIV crimes (and sentencing?)
A second student has now sent me guest-post material which I consider "top-flight" in terms of being an interesting topic, but the materials seems to me to be more suited to a Criminal Law Class blog than a Sentencing Law Class blog. Nevertheless, this student will still get some credit for this effort:
Topic: "Having HIV may get you 25-years in prison"
In fact, 34 states and 2 U.S. territories have HIV-specific laws on their books that state if a person (knowingly) living with HIV has sexual relations without prior disclosure of his or her HIV-positive status, then that person is committing a crime. Some of these laws permit sentencing a person living with HIV up to 25 years imprisonment for having consensual sex with someone who is HIV-negative (or does not know his or her HIV status) without prior HIV disclosure. A person may even be convicted if a condom is used and no HIV is transmitted, while some convictions occur with absolutely no sexual conduct, but rather the transmission of bodily fluid, such as saliva.
This link connects to an interesting article and video at the Huffington Post regarding this topic, entitled "HIV Is Not a Crime... Or Is It?":
Follow-up questions are as follows (some are aligned with the article):
1. Is this crime synonymous to attempted murder?
2. The article addresses the following concern: the CDC estimates that up to 20% of HIV-positive Americans do not know they are living with HIV. Because the laws absolve untested individuals, does this provide an incentive for the sexually promiscuous (those at the greatest risk of contracting HIV) to abstain from getting tested for HIV?
3. Should people living with HIV have to register as sex offenders? (If so, should this registration be required before or after the potential transmission of the HIV virus?)
4. Should people living with HIV be able to be sentenced up to 25 years in prison for a sexual act that did not result in the transmission of the HIV virus?
5. Should there be some responsibility (e.g. contributory negligence) on the victim if s/he did not ask whether the infected person had any diseases before engaging in sexual conduct with the infected person?
I am inclined to describe this issue and these queries as not quite sentencing issues because I have not heard/read any reports about defendants getting a harsher sentence based on HIV status alone. (Interestingly, I know that many HIV-positive defendants will request shorter prison terms by asserting the likelihood of poor medical care and/or a larger chance of dying in prison because of the disease.)
The Huff Post piece linked above reports some data on charges involving so-called HIV crimes:
Prosecutions against HIV-positive individuals have occurred in at least 39 states (some states have used non-HIV-specific laws for sexual assault), invoking a spectrum of charges including attempted murder, sexual assault, and assault with a deadly weapon. Yes, ignorance has led to defining blood, semen, vaginal fluid, vomit, and saliva of people living with HIV as "deadly weapons" by the courts -- and has even led to claims of "bio-terrorism" -- even though HIV is now considered a chronic manageable disease. In five states alone more than 500 people have been charged under these laws.
Obviously, being charged in special ways because of HIV status can have serious plea bargaining and sentencing consequences. But the concerns and questions raised by this issue still stike me as more fundamental criminal law concerns than distinct sentencing issues (even though, of course, every criminal law concern becomes a sentencing issue at some point).
December 19, 2011
Student guest-post asks great questions about prison labor
So far, one student has succeeded in earning extra credit by sending me "top-flight" guest posting material. Here is the content of this guest-post (along with the picture) that was sent my way this past weekend:
One topic that we have not had time to discuss in detail in class this year has been prison labor. See, for example, this article from the New York Times, published earlier this year and headlined "Enlisting Prison Labor to Close Budget Gaps." And this article from the Dayton Daily Newss published about a month ago, which is headlined "Bureaucracy, politics hinder prison labor force," and explains problems with Ohio’s prison labor force.
As the first article explains, nearly all states have some form of prison labor, and the use of prison labor seems to be rising in response to cuts in federal financing and decreased tax revenue. Supporters of prison labor say that this could be a win-win for prisons because it could (1) allow prisons to use the labor to reduce their own costs and (2) help inmates develop skills which will help them to re-enter society. Because of these advantages, coalitions supporting prison labor have included both conservative budget hawks and liberal humanitarian groups.
But prison labor continues to have its share of critics as well (e.g. labor unions and civil rights advocates). What do you think?
Is prison labor a good idea?
Does it matter whether it is required or voluntary?
Should it only be available to some inmates?
Students should remember that they can earn class participation by simply commenting on this effective post. And the offer to send me guest-post fodder for extra credit remains open at least through this week.
December 12, 2011
Plans for me and the blog during the exam period
Just a quick post to note (1) I should be in or around my office most late afternoons during the exam period, though a quick e-mail to set up a meeting time (or happy hour plans) is always recommended if you want to be sure to find me, and (2) I expect to do a few substantive posts during the period, in part because I want everyone to be able to continue to earn class participation credit via thoughtful comments to postings.
And for anyone who is extra interested in earning some extra sentencing excitement during the exam period, here is an offer: I will give extra credit to anyone who sends me high-quality, cut-and-paste-ready material for this blog (or for my main blog). The key to earning credit is this (vague) adjective "high-quality". Though all blog-oriented materials sent my way will earn my respect, extra credit will only be earned by those who prepare and present "top-flight" guest-post content.